We shall not cease from explorationAnd the end of all our exploring Will be to arrive where we started And know the place for the first time.  

Little Gidding

Midwinter spring is its own season
Sempiternal though sodden towards sundown, 
Suspended in time, between pole and tropic. 
When the short day is brightest, with frost and fire, 
The brief sun flames the ice, on pond and ditches, 
In windless cold that is the heart’s heat, 
Reflecting in a watery mirror 
A glare that is blindness in the early afternoon. 
And glow more intense than blaze of branch, or brazier, 
Stirs the dumb spirit: no wind, but pentecostal fire 
In the dark time of the year. Between melting and freezing
The soul’s sap quivers. There is no earth smell
Or smell of living thing. This is the spring time 
But not in time’s covenant. Now the hedgerow
Is blanched for an hour with transitory blossom 
Of snow, a bloom more sudden 
Than that of summer, neither budding nor fading, 
Not in the scheme of generation.
Where is the summer, the unimaginable Zero summer?

If you came this way, 
Taking the route you would be likely to take 
From the place you would be likely to come from, 
If you came this way in may time, you would find the hedges 
White again, in May, with voluptuary sweetness. 
It would be the same at the end of the journey, 
If you came at night like a broken king, 
If you came by day not knowing what you came for, 
It would be the same, when you leave the rough road 
And turn behind the pig-sty to the dull facade 
And the tombstone. And what you thought you came for
Is only a shell, a husk of meaning 
From which the purpose breaks only when it is fulfilled 
If at all. Either you had no purpose 
Or the purpose is beyond the end you figured 
And is altered in fulfilment. There are other places 
Which also are the world’s end, some at the sea jaws, 
Or over a dark lake, in a desert or a city– 
But this is the nearest, in place and time, 
Now and in England.

If you came this way, 
Taking any route, starting from anywhere,
At any time or at any season, 
It would always be the same: you would have to put off 
Sense and notion. You are not here to verify,
Instruct yourself, or inform curiosity 
Or carry report. You are here to kneel 
Where prayer has been valid. And prayer is more 
Than an order of words, the conscious occupation
Of the praying mind, or the sound of the voice praying. 
And what the dead had no speech for, when living, 
They can tell you, being dead: the communication
Of the dead is tongued with fire beyond the language of the living. 
Here, the intersection of the timeless moment
Is England and nowhere. Never and always.


Ash on an old man’s sleeve
Is all the ash the burnt roses leave. 
Dust in the air suspended
Marks the place where a story ended.
Dust inbreathed was a house- 
The walls, the wainscot and the mouse, 
The death of hope and despair,
This is the death of air. 

There are flood and drouth 
Over the eyes and in the mouth, 
Dead water and dead sand 
Contending for the upper hand. 
The parched eviscerate soil
Gapes at the vanity of toil,
Laughs without mirth. 
This is the death of earth. 

Water and fire succeed 
The town, the pasture and the weed. 
Water and fire deride 
The sacrifice that we denied.
Water and fire shall rot 
The marred foundations we forgot, 
Of sanctuary and choir. 
This is the death of water and fire. 

In the uncertain hour before the morning
Near the ending of interminable night 
At the recurrent end of the unending 
After the dark dove with the flickering tongue
Had passed below the horizon of his homing 
While the dead leaves still rattled on like tin 
Over the asphalt where no other sound was 
Between three districts whence the smoke arose
I met one walking, loitering and hurried 
As if blown towards me like the metal leaves
Before the urban dawn wind unresisting. 
And as I fixed upon the down-turned face 
That pointed scrutiny with which we challenge 
The first-met stranger in the waning dusk 
I caught the sudden look of some dead master
Whom I had known, forgotten, half recalled 
Both one and many; in the brown baked features 
The eyes of a familiar compound ghost
Both intimate and unidentifiable.
So I assumed a double part, and cried
And heard another’s voice cry: “What! are you here?” 
Although we were not. I was still the same,
Knowing myself yet being someone other– 
And he a face still forming; yet the words sufficed 
To compel the recognition they preceded.
And so, compliant to the common wind, 
Too strange to each other for misunderstanding,
In concord at this intersection time
Of meeting nowhere, no before and after, 
We trod the pavement in a dead patrol.
I said: “The wonder that I feel is easy, 
Yet ease is cause of wonder. Therefore speak: 
I may not comprehend, may not remember.” 
And he: “I am not eager to rehearse 
My thoughts and theory which you have forgotten. 
These things have served their purpose: let them be. 
So with your own, and pray they be forgiven 
By others, as I pray you to forgive
Both bad and good. Last season’s fruit is eaten 
And the fullfed beast shall kick the empty pail. 
For last year’s words belong to last year’s language 
And next year’s words await another voice.
But, as the passage now presents no hindrance 
To the spirit unappeased and peregrine
Between two worlds become much like each other,
So I find words I never thought to speak
In streets I never thought I should revisit
When I left my body on a distant shore.
Since our concern was speech, and speech impelled us
To purify the dialect of the tribe
And urge the mind to aftersight and foresight, 
Let me disclose the gifts reserved for age 
To set a crown upon your lifetime’s effort. 
First, the cold fricton of expiring sense 
Without enchantment, offering no promise
But bitter tastelessness of shadow fruit 
As body and sould begin to fall asunder. 
Second, the conscious impotence of rage
At human folly, and the laceration
Of laughter at what ceases to amuse. 
And last, the rending pain of re-enactment
Of all that you have done, and been; the shame
Of things ill done and done to others’ harm
Which once you took for exercise of virtue.
Then fools’ approval stings, and honour stains.
From wrong to wrong the exasperated spirit
Proceeds, unless restored by that refining fire 
Where you must move in measure, like a dancer.” 
The day was breaking. In the disfigured street
He left me, with a kind of valediction, 
And faded on the blowing of the horn. 


There are three conditions which often look alike
Yet differ completely, flourish in the same hedgerow: 
Attachment to self and to things and to persons, detachment 
From self and from things and from persons; and, growing between them, indifference 
Which resembles the others as death resembles life, 
Being between two lives – unflowering, between
The live and the dead nettle. This is the use of memory:
For liberation – not less of love but expanding
Of love beyond desire, and so liberation 
From the future as well as the past. Thus, love of a country
Begins as an attachment to our own field of action
And comes to find that action of little importance
Though never indifferent. History may be servitude, 
History may be freedom. See, now they vanish, 
The faces and places, with the self which, as it could, loved them, 
To become renewed, transfigured, in another pattern. 
Sin is Behovely, but 
All shall be well, and
All manner of thing shall be well.
If I think, again, of this place,
And of people, not wholly commendable,
Of not immediate kin or kindness,
But of some peculiar genius,
All touched by a common genius,
United in the strife which divided them; 
If I think of a king at nightfall,
Of three men, and more, on the scaffold
And a few who died forgotten 
In other places, here and abroad, 
And of one who died blind and quiet, 
Why should we celebrate 
These dead men more than the dying?
It is not to ring the bell backward
Nor is it an incantation
To summon the spectre of a Rose.
We cannot revive old factions 
We cannot restore old policies
Or follow an antique drum.
These men, and those who opposed them
And those whom they opposed 
Accept the constitution of silence
And are folded in a single party. 
Whatever we inherit from the fortunate
We have taken from the defeated
What they had to leave us – a symbol: 
A symbol perfected in death. 
And all shall be well and
All manner of thing shall be well
By the purification of the motive
In the ground of our beseeching.


The dove descending breaks the air
With flame of incandescent terror
Of which the tongues declare
The one dischage from sin and error. 
The only hope, or else despair
Lies in the choice of pyre of pyre- 
To be redeemed from fire by fire. 

Who then devised the torment? Love. 
Love is the unfamiliar Name
Behind the hands that wove 
The intolerable shirt of flame
Which human power cannot remove.
We only live, only suspire 
Consumed by either fire or fire. 

What we call the beginning is often the end
And to make and end is to make a beginning.
The end is where we start from. And every phrase 
And sentence that is right (where every word is at home, 
Taking its place to support the others,
The word neither diffident nor ostentatious,
An easy commerce of the old and the new,
The common word exact without vulgarity, 
The formal word precise but not pedantic,
The complete consort dancing together)
Every phrase and every sentence is an end and a beginning, 
Every poem an epitaph. And any action
Is a step to the block, to the fire, down the sea’s throat 
Or to an illegible stone: and that is where we start.
We die with the dying: 
See, they depart, and we go with them. 
We are born with the dead: 
See, they return, and bring us with them. 
The moment of the rose and the moment of the yew-tree
Are of equal duration. A people without history
Is not redeemed from time, for history is a pattern 
Of timeless moments. So, while the light fails 
On a winter’s afternoon, in a secluded chapel
History is now and England. 

With the drawing of this Love and the voice of this Calling 

We shall not cease from exploration
And the end of all our exploring 
Will be to arrive where we started 
And know the place for the first time. 
Through the unknown, unremembered gate 
When the last of earth left to discover 
Is that which was the beginning; 
At the source of the longest river 
The voice of the hidden waterfall
And the children in the apple-tree

Not known, because not looked for 
But heard, half-heard, in the stillness
Between two waves of the sea.
Quick now, here, now, always– 
A condition of complete simplicity
(Costing not less than everything)
And all shall be well and
All manner of thing shall be well
When the tongues of flames are in-folded 
Into the crowned knot of fire 
And the fire and the rose are one.

T.S.Eliot from The four Quartets

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